Queen Mary Tudor’s entrance into Paris

On the 6th of November 1514 Queen Mary Tudor, sister of King Henry VIII, progressed into Paris after her coronation the previous day at St Denis.   While Mary’s coronation had been a relatively low key affair, her entrance into Paris would be one of the grandest spectacles ever held. At seven o’clock the following morning, Louis XII left St. Denis early so that he could await the arrival of his wife and new queen. Mary left shortly after nine o’clock.

The French queen rode in an open carriage covered with a cloth of gold. She wore a magnificent gown of gold brocade covered in pearls and a jewelled necklace around her neck. At eighteen, dressed in cloth of gold, her breathtaking jewellery sparkling, Mary must have looked like a goddess come to earth. Francis d’Angoulême rode by Mary’s side, the pair it is reported, having often spoken to one another. It may have been over the last few days that Mary began to acquaint herself with her son-in-law and gain an opinion of him; it would be a relationship which she would rely on heavily after the death of her husband, Louis XII. Behind Mary rode her ladies, as well as the Louis XII’s daughters, Claude and Renee.

Paris had spared no expense for the welcoming of their new queen. Tapestries hung along the streets and the entire town was decorated with lilies and roses. On her journey to Paris Mary was greeted with a number of tableaux designed to welcome the new queen. The first of these tableaux was at St Denis. Here an enormous ship had been built, complete with real sailors who climbed the rigging. There was even wind blowing into the sails! The ship held images of Ceres, Bacchus and at the helm the Greek hero Paris. These symbolized the corn, wine and general commerce of the city of Paris. Mary was presented with a carefully written programme of the tableaux which had been illuminated with gold leaf before a choir sung her praises.

‘Noble Lady, welcome to France,

Through you we now shall live in joy and pleasure,

Frenchmen and Englishmen live at their ease,

Prise to God, who sends us such a blessing!

Most illustrious, magnanimous Princess, Paris reveres and honours you

And presents this ship to your nobility,

Which is under the King’s governance.

Grains, wines, and sweet liqueurs are therein,

Which the winds propel by divine ordinance.

All men of good will

Receive you as Queen of France.

To Mary, who has replaced war

By peace, friendship, and alliance,

Between the King’s of France and England.’

Mary progressed to the second tableau which was a beautiful marble fountain in front of a background of celestial blue. The three Graces danced in the surrounding garden while lilies of France and English roses grew out of the fountain. A further poem celebrating the joining of the lily and the rose was read.

The third tableau displayed Solomon and the Queen of Sheba representing the wisdom of King Louis XII. The fourth tableau was at the Church of the Holy Innocents. A two-tiered scaffold had been erected at the front of the church and a person dressed as God the Father held a large heart and a bouquet of red roses over figures of Louis XII and Mary, now both dressed in gold and ermine.

The fifth tableau was perhaps the most spectacular.  A grand walled city had been constructed enclosing a garden in which grew a rose bush. By a great feat of design a magnificent rose bud grew upwards out of the bush towards a balcony where a lily was growing before a golden throne covered in a beautiful pavilion. When the rosebud reached the lily it opened to reveal a young woman. The woman then recited a poem comparing Mary to love. This entire scene was watched by four Virtues and from outside the constructed walls Peace who had vanquished the evilness of Discord.

Continuing her journey Mary was presented with the sixth tableau at the Chastellet de Paris. Here the virtues of Justice and Truth sat on thrones beneath a grant replica of the French crown. Surrounding them the god and goddesses Phoebus, Diana, Minerva, Stella Maris and Concord sat in a meadow listening contentedly to a long speech comparing Louis XII to the sun and Mary to the moon.

Late in the afternoon Mary finally reached the seventh and final tableau at the Palace Royale. Here the Angel of the Annunciation, Gabriel, spoke to the Virgin Mary who sat under the coat of arms of France which was supported by a porcupine and a lion. The lion represented England, the porcupine the French Order of the Porcupine which was established in 1394 by Louis de France, Duke of Orléans. At the foot of the stage shepherds and shepherdesses sang a song celebrating Mary in heaven and Mary on earth.

‘As the peace between God and man,

By the intervention of the Virgin Mary,

Once was made, so now we,

The French bourgeois are relieved of our burdens;

Because Mary has married with us.

Through her, justice and peace join

In the fields of France and the countryside of England;

Since the bonds of love hold in restraint arms,

We have acquired for ourselves, equally,

Mary in heaven and Mary on earth.’

After this final tableau Mary and her entourage travelled to Notre Dame where she was greeted by all the learned men of the city, including doctors, lawyers and members of the Church. As Mary entered the great cathedral bells were rung and the organ began to play. As she made her way to the high altar the clergy sung the Te Deum. A mass was conducted and Mary formally welcomed to the city by the Archbishop of Paris. After this Mary returned to her litter and she and all those that accompanied her returned to the Palace Royale at around six o’clock.

A grand banquet was held in Mary’s honour. The banquet was held in the magnificent Grande Salle, a spectacular room 222 feet long and 84 feet wide. The room had been built with supporting Doric columns and the walls were lined with effigies of all the French kings. Tapestries hung about the walls and large sideboards covered with gold and silver plate surrounded each pillar showing the wealth of the French king. Musicians played light music while Mary and her guests ate.

Seated at a table made of marble, Mary was joined by her daughter-in-law Claude, Louise of Savoy, (Francis’ mother) and Louise’s daughter, Margarite of Navarre. For Mary this must have been a rather tense situation in which to find herself. Unless Mary bore her husband a son it would be Francis who inherited the French crown. Louise of Savoy was a fierce woman, devoted to her son as well as being politically astute and an extremely clever diplomat. Louise would have been very much aware of how tenuous her son’s claim to the throne had become with Mary’s marriage to Louis XII. The subject of their conversation remains unknown; both knew the implications of this marriage and the tensions it created.

The banquet consisted of a mixture of culinary and mechanical extravaganzas including a phoenix beating its wings until it was consumed by fire, a cock and a hare jousting and an image of St George on horseback leading a damsel. After the dishes were served Mary thanked the heralds and musicians and gave them an alms dish and plate worth around 200 crowns. After everyone had eaten, a number of ‘pastimes and diversions’ were held. It is reported that Mary fell asleep before the banquet was over, utterly exhausted from the rigours of the day and that she had to be carried to her rooms. Louis XII had retired some time earlier, his health being of a delicate nature.

Mary’s reign as Queen of France would last less than two months, ending when her husband King Louis XII died in the evening of the 1st of January 5115. However from her coronation until her death Mary would often style herself as Mary Dowager Queen of France.

tapestry-showing-mary-tudors-marriage-to-louis-xii-of-france

Marriage tapestry of Mary Tudor and King Louis XII. (Image from google)

Sources:

Croom Brown, Mary, Mary Tudor Queen of France (London: Methuen, 1911).

Everett Green, Mary Anne, Lives of the Princesses of England, from the Norman Conquest (London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, & Roberts, 1857).

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47, ed. J.S Brewer, James Gairdner and R.H Brodie, (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1862-1932).

Perry, Maria, Sisters to the King, (London: Andre Deutsh, 2002).

Richardson, Walter C., Mary Tudor The White Queen (Great Britain: University of Washington Press, 1970).

The Coronation of Mary Tudor, Queen of France

On Sunday 5th November 1514 eighteen year old Mary Tudor, sister of King Henry VIII, was crowned Queen of France at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis.

Early in morning the English Ambassadors were informed by Monsieur de Montmorency that they needed to make their way to the cathedral of St. Denis so they could take their seats before other, less important people arrived. At ten o’clock there was a great blast of trumpets signalling Mary’s arrival. A few moments later the French members of nobility arrived including the Ducs d’Alençon, Bourbon, Longueville and Albany, the Count de Vaundosme, and the Count de Saint-Pol.

After them came Mary. There are no accounts of what Mary wore for her coronation; for such a momentous occasion it surely must have been a gown of the most dazzling design and material. Mary was led by the hand through the cathedral by Francis d’Angoulême to a cushion in front of the high altar. Mary knelt and the Cardinal de Brie stepped forward anointing Mary with the sacred oil before placing the royal sceptre in her right hand and the rod of justice in her left. The Cardinal then placed a ring on Mary’s finger and the matrimonial crown of France on her head.

After this Francis stepped forward and helped Mary to her feet before guiding her to the chair of state beneath a canopy on the left side of the altar. The crown was so heavy that Francis had to move to stand behind where Mary sat so that he could hold the crown symbolically above the new queen’s head. High mass was then sung by Cardinal de Brie before Mary once more approached the altar. She made an offering before receiving the sacrament. Once this was done the ceremony was officially over and Mary left the cathedral of St Denis with her ladies and other nobles to return to her apartments where she was joined by Louis XII, who had been secretly watching the coronation.

Mary’s reign as Queen of France would last a little under two months, ending when King Louis XII died on the evening of the 1st January 1515. From that time forward Mary would regularly style herself as Mary Tudor, Dowager Queen of France.

Mary Tudor and Louis XII

Mary Tudor and Louis XII

Sources:

Everett Green, Mary Anne, Lives of the Princesses of England, from the Norman Conquest (Loondon: Longman, Brown, Green, Longman, & Roberts, 1857).

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47, ed. J.S Brewer, James Gairdner and R.H Brodie, (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1862-1932).

I am very honoured today to host Day 2 of Sharon Bennett Connolly’s book tour for her new book ‘Heroines of the Medieval World‘. Sharon has been fascinated by history for over 30 years now and even worked as a tour guide at historical sites, including Conisbrough Castle. Born in Yorkshire, she studied at University in Northampton before working in Customer Service roles at Disneyland in Paris and Eurostar in London. She is now having great fun, passing on her love of the past to her son, hunting dragons through Medieval castles or exploring the hidden alcoves of Tudor Manor Houses. Having received a blog as a gift, History…the Interesting Bits, Sharon started researching and writing about the lesser-known stories and people from European history, the stories that have always fascinated. Quite by accident, she started focusing on medieval women. And in 2016 she was given the opportunity to write her first non-fiction book, Heroines of the Medieval World, which was published by Amberley in September 2017. She is currently working on her second non-fiction book, Silk and the Sword: The Women of the Norman Conquest, which will be published by Amberley in late 2018.

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Today Sharon has kindly written a fascinating article which looks at how women did not just have to be warriors to be heroines….

Heroines Without a Sword

In writing Heroines of the Medieval World, I wanted to look beyond the idea that a Heroines had to be a warrior. Of course, warrior women were Heroines, but there were so many more women who had to find more subtle ways to make their way in life, rather than picking up the sword. I wanted to show that women, however weak and powerless they appeared to be, could make a difference through the way they lived their lives and the way they reacted to what life threw at them. There were several women whose lives changed the course of history, for women, themselves or their nation.

St Margaret, Queen of Scotland, for instance, was one such. Despite her obvious devotion to God, her valuable royal blood meant she would never be allowed to pursue a life of seclusion in a convent. St Margaret was an Anglo-Saxon princess, a great-granddaughter of Ӕthelrӕd II (the Unready), who fled to Scotland following the Norman Conquest of 1066 with her mother, Agatha, brother, Edgar the Aethling, and younger sister, Christina. A great prize on the marriage market, in 1069-70 Margaret was married to Malcolm III Canmor, King of Scotland. She used her position and influence as queen in order to help reform the Scottish church, steering it away from Celtic influences and bringing it in line with Western Catholicism. King Malcolm supported his wife in all her reforms – indeed, she would not have been able to achieve so much in the Scottish church without the king’s support. Educated, knowledgeable and worldly-wise, given her upbringing on the continent, Margaret was able to confidently debate with the leaders of the Scottish church; she embarrassed some of the clerics by knowing more about the proper procedures of the Church than they did and even had the papal manuals to quote from in order to make her points.

Margaret was a strong figure; she was pious but also a modernising queen and brought luxury to the Scottish court. According to Orderic Vitalis she was ‘eminent from her high birth, but even more renowned for her virtue and holy life’. Margaret and Malcom would have a large family, with six sons and two daughters growing to adulthood. Margaret died just three days after the siege of Alnwick, in 1093, in which her husband was killed, and her son fatally wounded. Her death may have been hastened on receiving the news, but her health was severely damaged from years of fasting. In 1124, when Margaret’s youngest son, David I, became king, her legacy was cemented through his continuing her policy of Church reform. Margaret’s sons honoured their mother’s memory, encouraging the popular cult of St Margaret that developed soon after the queen’s death, to foster the idea that she should be made a saint. Her canonisation came in 1250, and in 1673 Pope Clement X named her Patroness of Scotland.

330px-StMargareth_edinburgh_castle2St Margaret

St Margaret’s reforms changed fundamental religious practice in Scotland, bringing it in line with that of mainland Europe. She was an innovator who deliberately brought about change, during her life whereas Maud de Braose, by her death, would bring about a change in the law in

England. Matilda, or Maud, was the wife one of King John’s closest confidants, William de Braose. Described as tall and beautiful, wise and vigorous, she was made famous by her husband de Braose’s spectacular falling out with King John.

William de Braose was greatly favoured by King John in the early part of his reign. He was the knight who captured the rival to John’s throne, Arthur of Brittany, at the Siege of Mirebeau in 1202 and it is highly likely that he witnessed Arthur’s brutal murder in Rouen at Easter 1203. However, as John became increasingly paranoid, he turned against de Braose in a spectacular manner. Possibly fearing that de Braose knew too much about Arthur’s death and knowing that the baron owed money to the crown, John demanded that de Braose give up his sons as hostages for his loyalty. Maud refused, declaring, ‘I will not deliver my sons to your lord, King John, for he foully murdered his nephew Arthur, whom he should have cared for honourably.’

John then set about to destroy the de Braose family. He chased them to Ireland, from where William tried to treat with the king while his wife and oldest son escaped to Scotland. Captured in Galloway, Maud, her son and his family and her daughter, were all handed over to King John, who imprisoned them in Bristol Castle. The king set a fine of 50,000 marks for Maud’s release, but when her husband escaped to the continent, out of John’s reach, Maud refused to pay the fine. Maud and her son were moved to the dungeons of either Windsor or Corfe castle, where they were left to starve. According to Anonymous of Bethune;

‘On the eleventh day the mother was found dead between her son’s legs, still upright but leaning back against her son’s chest as a dead woman. The son, who was also dead, sat upright, leaning against the wall as a dead man. So desperate was the mother that she had eaten her son’s cheeks. When William de Braose, who was in Paris, heard this news, he died soon afterwards, many asserting that it was through grief.’

John’s treatment of the de Braose family has gone down in history in that when Magna Carta was written in 1215, it is likely that Clause 39 was included with Maud and her family in mind: ‘No man shall be taken, imprisoned, outlawed, banished or in any way destroyed, nor will we proceed against or prosecute him, except by the lawful judgement of his peers or by the law of the land.’ Not many women prisoners could claim to have made an impact on the laws of so many nations. Magna Carta and the right to judgement by peers can be seen in the United States’ 1791 Bill of Rights, the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the 1950 European Convention on Human Rights.

magna_carta_british_library_cotton_ms_augustus_ii-106The Magna Carta

St Margaret and Maud de Braose were two very different women, and yet their actions changed their countries for the better. Margaret has been venerated as a saintly, selfless queen who did much to help her adopted nation and helped to modernise the Scottish church, bringing it within the Western Catholic tradition. Whereas Maud is often blamed for her own downfall, accused of not knowing when to hold her tongue, of being too outspoken for her own good. And yet, Maud spoke out when she saw injustice and was harshly punished for her words. Her actions caused one of the basic tenets of English and international law to be instituted, that no one should be imprisoned without trial. These two women help to demonstrate how women could be Heroines in different ways, and without having to wield a sword.

Thank you so much for stopping by today Sharon! If you would like to learn more about Sharon’s latest book or her upcoming work please follow the links below….

Blog

Facebook

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Amazon UK link to Heroines in the Medieval World

Amberley Publishing link to Heroines in the Medieval World

Amazon US link to Heroines in the Medieval World

Sharon 2 6Sharon Bennett Connolly

For more stops on Sharon’s book tour please follow the links below:

Day 1: Review and Extract: – ‘Æthelflæd’

Day 2: Here 🙂

Day 3: Extract: Scandalous Heroines: ‘Joan, Lady of Wales’

Day 4: ‘All for Love’, Katherine Swynford and Joan Beaufort

Day 5: ‘Julian of Norwich’ from Chapter 2: Heroines in Religion

Day 6: ‘Hildegard of Bingen’, Literary Heroines

Day 7: Book Review

Day 8: Interview

Day 9: A Review by Lil’s Vintage World on YouTube

Day 10: Extract: ‘Nicholaa de la Haye’ and a competition with a signed giveaway

Day 11: ‘The Heroines Who Refused to be Left Out’- Eleanor of Aquitaine & Joan of Arc

Day 12: Extract: Joan of Kent from Chapter 4: Scandalous Heroines

Day 13:

Day 13:

 

 

Jousting

Jousting has a long and rich history that stretches back several hundred years before the Tudor period. In the 1100’s warfare included mounted cavalrymen with heavy lances who would charge at their enemy in formation. Therefore jousting was initially used as a means for knights to train for warfare. Jousting tournaments consisted of mock battles with dozens or even hundreds of men all riding horses and carrying lances. They would attack one another with their lances, swords and maces across a large area such as the countryside. Then from around the mid 1300’s the more formalised style of jousting began where one man charged at another.

Jousting soon became popular events where people would flock to watch noblemen fight for the honour of their King or Queen. Under Henry VIII jousting celebrations became huge spectacles designed to impress and overwhelm spectators. Men would dress up in disguises and magnificent and intricate floats with spectacular decorations were created. In addition lavish prizes were also granted to the winner of such events.

The joust became a highly formalized event and there was a great deal involved in organising a joust. A suitable area needed to be found and then set up and men had to be chosen to represent various members of royalty. The area designated to hold the joust was called the list, a roped off area where the two competitors challenged one another. Down the centre of the list a barrier was erected to create two lanes for the jousters to ride down. This barrier was initially known as the tilt and was first made out of cloth and then in the early 16th century was made out of wood. The tilt also allowed riders to focus more on their opponent rather than steering their horse. Overtime the tilt became known as the tilt barrier and the act of riding down the list was called tilt or tilting.

Men needed to be physically fit and very strong to be able to participate in a joust. Not only was their armour extremely heavy they also had to be able to ride a horse at full speed as well as wielding their lace with skill and accuracy. In addition to this they had to weather any potential blows they may receive to their shield or body.

The rules surrounding jousting are complicated but it was the aim of a participant to strike their opponent upon the shield, armour or to wield such strength that they could dismount their opponent with their lance. Points were awarded according to where the blow was struck and if the lance was broken. Specialised armour was created for jousters and in many tournaments the participant rather than the King would have to supply their own armour, horses and weaponry.

Lances were often blunted but this did not stop an array of injuries or even deaths occurring during a joust. Bone fractures from the blow of the lance or falling from the horse were common and even bones could be broken. While not frequent death could also be the final result of a joust. For example King Henry II of France died in 1559 from wounds he received while jousting.

Henry VIII was a passionate and active member of the joust. Previously the young Henry had been denied the ability to joust in competitions as he was the sole heir to the throne. His father, Henry VII, feared his son may be injured or even worse killed. Yet when Henry came to the throne in 1509 as a young, handsome and extremely athletic King he quickly took to the excitement and chivalry of the joust.

Henry VIII lived by the code of chivalry and aimed to achieve great successes such as King Arthur of legend and the crushing defeats King Henry V achieved in Europe. Jousting closely tied with the code of chivalry as it allowed a man not only to practice and show off their great military skills but also allowed him to display his masculinity – something Henry VIII took great pride in. The majesty of a joust also allowed Henry to show off his splendour and wealth to important people and diplomates. They would then return home and pass on how truly chivalrous and powerful the English King was.

Henry VIII participated in many jousts throughout his life, the most famous being in 1511 when an extravagant tournament was held at Westminster to celebrate the birth of his son and heir (who tragically died a short time later). He also jousted on the 19th and 20th of May 1516 where Henry VIII’s opponents had been so dismal that he vowed “never to joust again except it be with as good a man as himself.

On the 10th March 1524 the King jousted against Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. In a dramatic miscalculation Henry forgot to lower his visor! Brandon was wearing a helmet that gave him very little vision and while people cried for Brandon to holt he could not hear them. He surged forward and struck the inside of the King’s helmet sending splinters exploding over the King’s face. Luckily Henry was not badly injured and laughed the whole incident off.

Then on January 24th Henry VIII fell from his horse during the joust and in full armour was crushed under the weight of the animal. The fall would have been the equivalent of a 40 mile per hour car crash! The King was unconscious for two hours and many feared for his life. Luckily he awoke but the King was never able to joust again.

Jousting 1511

Henry VIII Jousting before Katherine of Aragon in 1511

Sources:

History of Jousting, History, viewed 22 December 2015, <http://www.history.co.uk/shows/full-metal-jousting/articles/history-of-jousting&gt;.

Inside The Body of Henry VIII 2009, documentary presented by Robert Hutchinson, historian Dr Lucy Worlsey and Dr Catherine Hood, National Geographic.

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47, ed. J.S Brewer, James Gairdner and R.H Brodie, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1862-1932.

Levitt, Emma 2014, “A second king”: chivalric masculinity and the meteoric rise of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk (c. 1484- 1545)”, University of Winchester- Gender and Medieval Studies.

Lipscomb, Suzannah 2009, 1536 The Year that Changed Henry VIII, Lion Hudson plc, Oxford.

Mackay, Lauren 2014, Inside the Tudor Court, Amberley Publishing, Gloucestershire.

Medieval Jousting Tournaments, 2014, viewed 17 October 2015, < http://www.medieval-life-and-times.info/medieval-knights/medieval-jousting-tournaments.htm&gt;.

Medieval Rules for Jousting, 2015, Medievalist.Net, viewed 17 October 2015, <http://www.medievalists.net/2015/01/07/medieval-rules-jousting/&gt;.

On Tuesday 21 November 1514, in the grand tournament to celebrate the marriage of Mary Tudor and King Louis XII, the fighting on foot began.

Francis Angoulême, Louis’ son-in-law and Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk were both considered to be the best jousters of their respective teams, and official champions of their respective king’s. However it had been Brandon that had been outshining the French champion. On the first day of the tournament he ran at least fifteen courses in which he was the challenger for thirteen, the more demanding role. On the second day, Brandon continued to display his great skill. In three consecutive rounds he managed to unhorse his opponent, one of the greatest and most difficult feats of the joust to achieve. Dorset was also reported to have performed well, breaking many spears. On the fourth day Brandon ran six courses, of which they were almost all run consecutively

When the fighting on foot began on the 21st Francis was no longer able to compete. He wished to highlight the poor skill of the Englishmen and decided to put Thomas Grey Marquis Dorset and Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk into battle against all challengers. Both men appeared to have fared well and it was reported that Francis was furious.

In an attempt to outshine and bring Brandon down, Francis brought in an enormous German of great strength and skill. He was reported to be taller and stronger than any Frenchman and was disguised so that no one would know he was German. Brandon found himself against an unexpected opponent. However he was a skilled fighter and an Englishman at that. He not only had his personal pride, but that of his country to uphold  After unhorsing his German opponent Brandon struck him with the butt end of his spear causing the German to stagger, but the fighting continued. After lifting their visors to draw breath, Brandon and the German continued to fight with blunt edged swords. Despite such a fierce opponent Brandon was able to defeat the German with his superior skill and managed to take him by the neck and pummel him about the head until blood came out of his nose. The defeated German was quickly whisked away so that no one would discover his true identity.

Brandon and the Englishmen were the clear winners of the magnificent tournament. Brandon’s only injury was a sore hand, that had been made a little worse after his battle against the German. Louis XII was reported to have been pleased that Francis did not fare well and stated that Suffolk and Dorset “did shame all France” and deserved the great praise they received.

Afterwards Brandon wrote to Henry VIII and the only mention of his performance at the tournament was a single line in which he stated ‘my lord, at the writing of this letter the jousts were done; and blessed be God all our Englishmen sped well, as I am sure ye shall hear by other.’

Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk was renowned as one of the best jousters in all of England, second only to Henry VIII of course!

  Master of the Brandon Portrait

Source:

Everett Green, Mary Anne, Letters of royal and illustrious ladies of Great Britain, from the commencement of the twelfth century to the close of the reign of Queen Mary Vol 1 (London: H. Colburn, 1846).

Hall, Edward, Hall’s chronicle: containing the history of England, during the reign of Henry the Fourth, and the succeeding monarchs, to the end of the reign of Henry the Eighth, in which are particularly described the manners and customs of those periods. Carefully collated with the editions of 1548 and 1550 (London: J. Johnson, 1809).

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, 1509-47, ed. J.S Brewer, James Gairdner and R.H Brodie, (His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1862-1932).

Richardson, Walter C., Mary Tudor The White Queen (Great Britain: University of Washington Press, 1970).